Name and surname : Ramón Eduardo Sotomayor Zárate.


          • Degree in Chemistry and Pharmacy, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
          • Pharmaceutical Chemist, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
          • Doctor in Pharmacology, University of Chile.

Current charges:

  • Titular Professor, Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valparaíso.
  • Director of the Center for Neurobiology and Integrative Physiopathology (CENFI), University of Valparaíso ( ).
  • Director of the Master's Program in Biological Sciences, mention Neuroscience, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valparaíso ( ). Treasurer of the Chilean Pharmacology Society.

Institution / Affiliation: Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valparaíso.

City-Country : Valparaíso, Chile.


 Member of the Chilean Society of Neuroscience.

Member of the Chilean Pharmacology Society (

Member of the Society for Neuroscience, USA.

Member of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET) (

Member of the International Society for Neurochemistry (

Council Member of the Pan American Neuroendocrine Society (

Research lines / topics:

Neurobiology of Food and Drug Abuse Addiction

Neuropharmacology: Neurochemical and behavioral characterization of amphetamine derivatives.

Neuroendocrinology: Neonatal programming with sex hormones and their effects on the Mesocorticolimbic System. Sex Differences

Functional neuroanatomy: Characterization of the neurochemical regulation of dopamine release in the rat Lateral Septum.


Main publications: 

Sotomayor R., Forray MI, Gysling K. (2005) Acute morphine administration increases extracellular DA levels in the rat lateral septum by decreasing the GABAergic inhibitory tone in the ventral tegmental area. J. Neurosci. Res. 81: 132-139.

Gobbi M., Funicello M., Gerstbrein K., Holy M., Moya PR, Sotomayor R., Forray MI, Gysling K., Paluzzi S., Bonanno G., Reyes-Parada M., Sitte HH, Mennini T. (2008) N, N-dimethylthioamphetamine and methylthioamphetamine, two non-neurotoxic substrates of 5-HT transporters, have low in vitro efficacy for the induction of transporter-mediated 5-HT release and currents. J. Neurochem. 105: 1770-1780.

Sotomayor-Zárate R., Araya, KA, Pereira, P, Blanco, E, Quiroz, G, Pozo, S, Carreño, P, Andrés, ME, Forray, MI, Gysling, K. (2010) Activation of GABA-B receptors induced by systemic amphetamine abolishes dopamine release in the rat lateral septum. J. Neurochem. 114 (6): 1678-1686.

Sotomayor-Zárate R., Quiroz G., Araya KA, Abarca J., Ibáñez MR, Montecinos A., Guajardo C., Núñez G., Fierro A., Moya PR, Iturriaga-Vásquez P., Gómez-Molina C. , Gysling K., Reyes-Parada M. (2012) 4-Methylthioamphetamine Increases Dopamine in the Rat Striatum and has Rewarding Effects In Vivo. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 111 (6): 371-9.

Sotomayor-Zárate R, Gysling K, Busto UE, Cassels BK, Tampier L, Quintanilla ME. (2013) Varenicline and cytisine: two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake in University of Chile bibulous rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 227 (2): 287-98.

Sotomayor-Zárate R, Renard GM, Araya KA, Carreño P, Fuentealba JA, Andrés ME, Gysling K. (2013) Long-term loss of dopamine release mediated by CRF-1 receptors in the rat lateral septum after repeated cocaine administration. Behav Brain Res. 250: 206-10.

Sotomayor-Zárate R, Jara P, Araos P, Vinet R, Quiroz G, Renard GM, Espinosa P, Hurtado-Guzmán C, Moya PR, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, Gysling K, Reyes-Parada M. (2014) Improving amphetamine therapeutic selectivity: N, N-dimethyl-MTA has dopaminergic effects and does not produce aortic contraction. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 May; 114 (5): 395-9.

Renard GM, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Blanco EH, Gysling K. (2014) Withdrawal from chronic amphetamine reduces dopamine transmission in the rat lateral septum. J. Neurosci Res. 92 (7): 937-43. doi: 10.1002 / jnr.23369.

Sotomayor-Zárate R., Abarca J, Araya KA, Renard GM, Andrés ME, Gysling K. (2015) Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Nov; 101: 116-23. doi: 10.1016 / j.phrs.2015.08.015

Dib T, Martínez-Pinto J, Reyes-Parada M, Torres GE, Sotomayor-Zárate R. (2018) Neonatal programming with testosterone propionate reduces dopamine transporter expression in nucleus accumbens and methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity in adult female rats. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Jul 2; 346: 80-85.

Bonansco C, Martínez-Pinto J, Silva RA, Velásquez VB, Martorell A, Selva MV, Espinosa P, Moya PR, Cruz G, Andrés ME, Sotomayor-Zárate R (2018) Neonatal exposure to estradiol increases dopaminergic transmission in Nucleus Accumbens and morphine-induced conditioned place preference in adult female rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2018 Jul; 30 (7): e12574. doi: 10.1111 / jne.12574.

Quiroz G, Guerra-Díaz N, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, Rivera-Meza M, Quintanilla ME, Sotomayor-Zárate R. (2018) Erysodine, a competitive antagonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, decreases ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring UChB rats. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Sep 3; 349: 169-176. doi: 10.1016 / j.bbr.2018.04.038. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Mauna JC, Harris SS, Pino JA, Edwards CM, DeChellis-Marks MR, Bassi CD, Garcia-Olivares J, Amara SG, Guajardo FG, Sotomayor-Zarate R, Terminel M, Castañeda E, Vergara M, Baust T, Thiels E , Torres GE (2019) G protein βγ subunits Play a Critical Role in the Actions of Amphetamine. Translational Psychiatry. 2019 Feb 11; 9 (1): 81. doi: 10.1038 / s41398-019-0387-8.

Velásquez VB, Zamorano GA, Martínez-Pinto J, Bonansco C, Jara P, Torres GE, Renard GM, Sotomayor-Zárate R. (2019) Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Early Exposure to Sex Hormones: Effects on Morphine-Induced Accumbens Dopamine Release , Reward, and Locomotor Behavior in Male and Female Rats. Front Pharmacol. 2019 Mar 26; 10: 295. doi: 10.3389 / fphar.2019.00295. eCollection 2019.

Plaza W, Gaschino F, Gutierrez C, Santibañez N, Estay-Olmos C, Sotomayor-Zárate R, De la Fuente-Ortega E, Pautassi RM, Haeger, PA (2020) Pre and postnatal alcohol exposure delays, in female but not in male rats, the extinction of an auditory fear conditioned memory and increases alcohol consumption. Dev Psychobiol. 2020 May; 62 (4): 519-531. doi: 10.1002 / dev.21925. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Gárate-Pérez MF, Méndez A, Bahamondes C, Sanhueza C, Guzmán F, Reyes-Parada M, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Renard GM. (2021) Vasopressin in the lateral septum decreases conditioned place preference to amphetamine and nucleus accumbens dopamine release. Addict Biol. 2021 Jan; 26 (1): e12851. doi: 10.1111 / adb.12851. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Quiroz G, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Gonzalez-Gutierrez JP, Viscarra F, Moraga F, Bermudez I, Reyes-Parada M, Quintanilla ME, Rivera-Meza M and Iturriaga-Vásquez P. (2019) UFR2709, a nicotinic receptor antagonist, decreases ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats. Front. Pharmacol. 2019 Dec 3; 10: 1429. doi: 10.3389 / fphar.2019.01429. eCollection 2019.

Viscarra F, González-Gutierrez J, Esparza E, Figueroa C, Paillali P, Hödar-Salazar M, Cespedes C, Quiroz G, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Reyes-Parada M, Bermúdez I, Iturriaga-Vásquez P. (2020) Nicotinic Antagonist UFR2709 Inhibits Nicotine Reward and Decreases Anxiety in Zebrafish. Molecules. 2020 Jun 30; 25 (13): E2998. doi: 10.3390 / molecules25132998.

Cid-Jofré V, Gárate-Pérez M, Clark PJ, Valero-Jara V, Spain RA, Sotomayor-Zárate R, Cruz G, Renard GM (2021) Chronic modafinil administration to preadolescent rats impairs social play behavior and dopaminergic system. Neuropharmacology. 2021 Feb 1; 183: 108404. doi: 10.1016 / j.neuropharm.2020.108404. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Guajardo, FG; Velasquez, VB; Raby, D .; Núñez-Vivanco, G .; Iturriaga-Vásquez, P .; Spain, RA; Reyes-Parada, M .; Sotomayor-Zárate, R. (2020) Pharmacological Characterization of 4-Methylthioamphetamine Derivatives. Molecules. 2020 Nov 13; 25 (22): E5310. doi: 10.3390 / molecules25225310.