The consumption of substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, etc.) is a problem of health relevance throughout the world (1) and also in Latin America ( 2 - 7 ) , where it brings numerous negative consequences for those who consume it, its environment and is a heavy burden on public health systems . In this sense, the need to establish communication bridges between scientists in basic and applied areas and, in turn, between them and public policy decision-makers is recognized. Particular interest has been aroused in recent years in the consumption practices that occur in early stages of development, since the earlier the initiation of substance use, the greater the possibilities of subsequent problematic use ( 8 )
Regarding alcohol consumption, the World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that 5.3% of the global burden of morbidity and injuries is caused by alcohol consumption. In 2016, 3 million people (ie, 6 people per minute) died from causes attributable to the harmful use of alcohol (9). Of the total deaths, 28.7% are due to injuries due to traffic accidents or interpersonal violence, 21.3% to digestive diseases, 19% to cardiovascular diseases and the rest to other types of pathologies, including here the problems mental health. After alcohol, tobacco and marijuana are the most consumed substances in Ibero-American countries such as Argentina (SEDRONAR, 2017), Chile (SENDA, 2019) and in the world (EMCDDA, 2018; SAMHSA, 2014). Studies from different countries, carried out in the university population, coincide in pointing out that the prevalences of life and the last month of tobacco consumption are around 50% and 25%, respectively (Pilatti et al., 2017 Meier, Tackett, Miller, Grant, & Wagener, 2015; Suerken et al., 2014; Skidmore et al., 2016; Jonhston et al., 2015). On the other hand, a study with Argentine university students reported (Pilatti et al., 2017) prevalences of marijuana use of 36%, 27.5% and 17.5% (life, last year / month, respectively), similar to those observed in other cultural contexts (see Suerken et al., 2014). Many of the cross-cultural investigations dedicated to analyzing environmental determinants of these consumptions have pointed out similarities (10), but also significant differences (11, 12) in the reasons underlying, or in the contexts in which, consumption occurs between countries Ibero-American and other countries, Anglo-Saxons, for example.
This picture of the situation shows the need to increase epidemiological surveillance, to discover determinants of substance use and forms of treatment that are specific to Ibero-American populations, as well as to enhance regional interactions. which are also ideal for the discovery and triage of new treatments, to establish the safety of those that have shown promise and to analyze sex differences in vulnerability to addiction. Clinical and epidemiological research provide continuous feedback, but the institutional paths in which this feedback occurs are not always so clear and often both types of research are separated (Martínez-Calvo and Andalia, 2012).
- Spear S, Longshore D, McCaffrey D, Ellickson P. Prevalence of substance use among white and American Indian young adolescents in a Northern Plains state. Journal of psychoactive drugs 2005; 37 (1), 1-6.
- OCd drugs. Twelfth national study of drugs in the general population of Chile, 2016. SENDA, ed .: Ministry of the Interior and Public Security, 2017.
- Ruiz P, Pilatti A, Pautassi RM. Consequences Of Alcohol Use, And Its Association With Psychological Distress, Sensitivity To Emotional Contagion And Age Of Onset Of Alcohol Use, In Uruguayan Youth With Or Without College Degree. Alcohol 2019.
- Moraes Castro M, Pinto F, Pereiras C, Fischer Castells A, Vogel Agoglia C, Duarte V, Barceló J, Sosa C, González G. Self-declaration of the consumption of marijuana, tobacco, alcohol and cocaine derivatives in pregnant women in 2013 and 2016, Montevideo, Uruguay. Addictions; Publication in advance 2019.
- Vera BDV, Pilatti A, Pautassi RM. ELSA cohort 2014: association of age of first drink and progression from first drink to drunkenness on alcohol outcomes in Argentinean college freshmen. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse 2020; 46 (1), 58-67.
- Vera BDV, Pilatti A, Pautassi RM. ELSA cohort 2014: association of age of first drink and progression from first drink to drunkenness on alcohol outcomes in Argentinean college freshmen. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse 2019, 1-10.
- Pilatti A, Read JP, Pautassi RM. ELSA 2016 Cohort: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use and Their Association with Age of Drug Use Onset, Risk Perception, and Social Norms in Argentinean College Freshmen. Frontiers in psychology 2017; 8, 1452.
- Agrawal A, Grant JD, Waldron M, Duncan AE, Scherrer JF, Lynskey MT, Madden PA, Bucholz KK, Heath AC. Risk for initiation of substance use as a function of age of onset of cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use: findings in a Midwestern female twin cohort. Prev Med 2006; 43 (2), 125-128.
- World Health O. Global status report on alcohol and health - 2014, 2014 ed. Ed .; Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014.
- Bravo AJ, Sotelo M, Pilatti A, Mezquita L, Read JP, Cross-Cultural Addictions Study T. Depressive symptoms, ruminative thinking, marijuana use motives, and marijuana outcomes: A multiple mediation model among college students in five countries. Drug and alcohol dependence 2019; 204, 107558.
- Mosque L, Bravo AJ, Ortet G, Pilatti A, Pearson MR, Ibanez MI. Cross-cultural examination of different personality pathways to alcohol use and misuse in emerging adulthood. Drug and alcohol dependence 2018; 192, 193-200.
- Bravo AJ, Pearson MR, Pilatti A, Read JP, Mezquita L, Ibanez MI, Ortet G. Cross-cultural examination of college drinking culture in Spain, Argentina, and USA: Measurement invariance testing of the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale. Drug and alcohol dependence 2017; 180, 349-355.